After a siege of seven months, Alexander used his man-made causeway to batter down the walls of Tyre and take the city.

Indeed, a Tyrian-Israelite expedition travelled to the Sudan and Somalia, and perhaps even as far as the Indian Ocean" (32).

Another development which encouraged the wealth of Tyre seems to have been a religious revolution in the city under the reigns of Abibaal and Hiram which elevated the god known as Melqart (a deified version of Hercules) over the traditional divine couple of the Phoenicians, Baal (also known as El) and Astarte (Asherah).

The Tyrians were known as workers in dye from the shells of the Murex shellfish.

This purple dye was highly valued and held royal connotations in the ancient world.

Tyre is an ancient Phoenician port city which, in myth, is known as the birthplace of Europa (who gave Europe its name) and Dido of Carthage (who gave aid to, and fell in love with, Aeneas of Troy).

The name means 'rock' and the city consisted of two parts, the main trade centre on an island, and 'old Tyre', about a half mile opposite on the mainland. 2750 BCE and the trade centre grew up shortly after.

Tyre was in its golden age around the 10th century BCE and, in the 8th, was colonizing other sites in the area and enjoying great wealth and prosperity owing primarily to an alliance with Israel.

The Tyrian alliance and trade agreement with David, King of Israel, was initiated by the King of Tyre, Abibaal who sent the new king timber from the fabled cedars of Lebanon (as Abibaal's son, Hiram, is said to have done for David's son Solomon).

Tyre would become Alexander's ally, but he should sacrifice on the mainland at Old Tyre, opposite the island.