Thou shouldst loose his bandages and apply grease to his head as far as his neck, (and) thou shouldst bind it with ymrw .

Thou shouldst treat it afterwards with honey every day, (and) his relief is sitting until he recovers.

The text is dated to about 1550 BCE and measures 20 meters in length.

It is one of the oldest known surgical texts and it describes in detail the examination, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of numerous ailments, as well as procedures on performing various forms of cosmetic surgery, plastic surgery and rhinoplasty.

Surgeons are now considered to be specialized physicians, whereas in the early ancient Greek world a trained general physician had to use his hands (χείρ in Greek) to carry out all medical and medicinal processes including for example the treating of wounds sustained on the battlefield, or the treatment of broken bones (a process called in Greek: χειρουργείν).

The Sumerians saw sickness as a divine punishment imposed by different demons when an individual broke a rule.

For this reason, to be a physician, one had to learn to identify approximately 6,000 possible demons that might cause health problems.

Many examples exist: some Asian tribes used a mix of saltpeter and sulfur that was placed onto wounds and lit on fire to cauterize wounds; the Dakota people used the quill of a feather attached to an animal bladder to suck out purulent material; the discovery of needles from the stone age seem to suggest they were used in the suturing of cuts (the Maasai used needles of acacia for the same purpose); and tribes in India and South America developed an ingenious method of sealing minor injuries by applying termites or scarabs who ate around the edges of the wound and then twisted the insects' neck, leaving their heads rigidly attached like staples.

(also known as trepanning, trephination, trephining or burr hole from Greek τρύπανον and τρυπανισμός), in which a hole is drilled or scraped into the skull for exposing the dura mater to treat health problems related to intracranial pressure and other diseases.It mentions how to surgically treat crocodile bites and serious burns, recommending the drainage of pus-filled inflammation but warns against certain diseased skin.Thou shouldst bind it with fresh meat the first day.So much was he famed for his medical skill that he was deified, becoming the Egyptian god of medicine.On one of the doorjambs of the entrance to the Temple of Memphis there is the oldest recorded engraving of a medical procedure: circumcision and engravings in Kom Ombo, Egypt depict surgical tools.Out of 120 prehistoric skulls found at one burial site in France dated to 6500 BCE, 40 had trepanation holes.