In terms of infidelity, the theory states that when sex-ratios are high, men are more likely to be promiscuous and engage in sex outside of a committed relationship because the demand for men is higher and this type of behaviour, desired by men, is more accepted.

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Correspondingly, monogamy and commitment are more commonplace.

On the other hand, when people live within environments that encompass little stress and threats to the viability of offspring, the need for serious and committed relations is lowered, and therefore promiscuity and infidelity are more common.

It is more common for men compared to women to engage in extradyadic relationships.

The National Health and Social Life Survey found that 4% of married men, 16% of cohabiting men, and 37% of dating men engaged in acts of sexual infidelity compared to 1% of married women, 8% of cohabiting women, and 17% of women in dating relationships.

Infidelity (synonyms include: cheating, adultery (when married), netorare (NTR), being unfaithful, or having an affair) is a violation of a couple's assumed or stated contract regarding emotional and/or sexual exclusivity.

Other scholars define infidelity as a violation according to the subjective feeling that one's partner has violated a set of rules or relationship norms; this violation results in feelings of sexual jealousy and rivalry.Strategic pluralism is a theory that focuses on how environmental factors influence mating strategies.According to this theory, when people live within environments that are demanding and stressful, the need for bi-parental care is greater for increasing the survival of offspring.Results, however, vary year by year, and also by age-group surveyed.For example, one study conducted by the University of Washington, Seattle found slightly, or significantly higher rates of infidelity for populations under 35, or older than 60.For example, one study found that some women in more financially independent and higher positions of power, were also more likely to be more unfaithful to their partners.