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These inconsistencies continue to place an increased amount of environmental stress on African-American families which result in the failure of most African-American children to reach their full potential.
Moynihan's report made the argument that the relative absence of nuclear families (those having both a father and mother present) in Black America would greatly hinder further Black socioeconomic progress.
The African-American family structure has been divided into a twelve-part typology that is used to show the differences in the family structure based on “gender, marital status, and the presence or absence of children, other relatives or nonrelatives." These family sub-structures are divided up into three major structures: nuclear families, extended families, and augmented families.
Billingsley's research found that the extended family structure is predominantly in the segmented I sub-structured families.
This family structure is different from the traditional norm family discussed earlier, it combines the nuclear and extended family units with nonrelatives.
Thomas, Krampe, and Newton relies on a 2002 survey that shows how the father's lack of presence has resulted in several negative effects on children ranging from education performance to teen pregnancy.
Whereas the father presence tends to have an opposite effect on children, increasing their chances on having a greater life satisfaction.
Andrew Billingsley's research on the African-American nuclear family is organized into three groups: Incipient Nuclear, Simple Nuclear, Segmented Nuclear I, and Segmented Nuclear II.
Almost 70 percent of black children are born to single mothers.
Thomas, Krampe, and Newton's research shows that 31% of African-American fathers rarely to never visit their children; this is 20% more than white fathers.