Afghanistan's economy is the world's 108th largest, with a GDP of .08 billion; the country fares much worse in terms of per-capita GDP (PPP), ranking 167th out of 186 countries in a 2016 report from the International Monetary Fund.‎) is believed to be as old as the ethnonym Afghan, which is documented in the 10th-century geography book Hudud ul-'alam.

The root name "Afghan" was used historically in reference to a member of the ethnic Pashtuns, and the suffix "-stan" means "place of" in Persian and Hindi.

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By the middle of the 6th century BCE, the Achaemenids overthrew the Medes and incorporated Arachosia, Aria, and Bactria within its eastern boundaries.

An inscription on the tombstone of Darius I of Persia mentions the Kabul Valley in a list of the 29 countries that he had conquered.

Artifacts typical of the Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze, and Iron ages have been found in Afghanistan.

Urban civilization is believed to have begun as early as 3000 BCE, and the early city of Mundigak (near Kandahar in the south of the country) may have been a colony of the nearby Indus Valley Civilization.

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Main Btn , table.map_table tr[bgcolor='#999999'] , body #Page Header, .inner_nav_bar, .map_seprator ,.navbar-toggle:hover .icon-bar,#fullpage .navbar-toggle .icon-bar,#Page Header .navbar-toggle .icon-bar,div#mynav,.nav_button .profile_box_title R a , .galleryviewleft b , .profile_box_title L h1 , .group Info Container b a ,#side_box .menu_box_title, .menu_box_title1, btn-primary.dropdown-toggle.dropmenus ,.inner_common_cont h3 , #page_container a.mhlinkred, #page_container a.mhlinkred:visited div.contact-form div.bg1 div.my_tasklist ul.dropdown-menu, btn-primary.dropdown-toggle.dropmenus body#fullpage #e Meeting .account_tabs li.selected a span , .header.account_tabs li:hover a span , A. An Indus Valley site has been found on the Oxus River at Shortugai in northern Afghanistan.After 2000 BCE, successive waves of semi-nomadic people from Central Asia began moving south into Afghanistan; among them were many Indo-European-speaking Indo-Iranians.Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east; Iran in the west; Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan in the north; and in the far northeast, China and the Pakistani-administered Gilgit-Baltistan which is claimed by India.Its territory covers 652,000 square kilometers (252,000 sq mi) and much of it is covered by the Hindu Kush mountain range, which experience very cold winters.More recent findings established that the Indus Valley Civilisation stretched up towards modern-day Afghanistan, making the ancient civilisation today part of Pakistan, Afghanistan and India.